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赵国屏:分解生物学:性命迷信的“利器”

2020-11-17 公民日报
【字体:

yuyinbobao

  renleijinru21shijiyilai,yimenxinxingdechuanchaxueke“fenjieshengwuxue”chengweiguojimixinqianyanyidaredian。

  fenjieshengwuxue,nengcaozongdachangganjunchuchandapihuagongziliao,zhengtuomeiyouzhiliaodeshuejucu;jiaomujunchuchanqinghaosuanhehanjianrencanzaogan,xiajiangbenqian,zengjinxinyaoyanfa;gongchengjunbu“wushang”yibanxibao,zhuanzhujinfanaixibao;chuangzhizaiyouyeshengjiyinzude“tianranxibao”,tantaoxingmingtuihuazhilu;caozongdnazhucunshujuxinxibingkaipishengwujijiaoji……zuoweimixinjiedezhongshengqili,fenjieshengwuxuetingdunminjie,bingyizaihuagong、dongli、ziliao、nongye、yiyao、qingkuangheankangdengfanchoujieshichuguangmodecaozongyuanjing。

  探讨性命发源演变

  解读“暗码”革新天然

  xingmingshitianxiashangzuipangzadewuzicunzai。renleizijiangshengyilai,jiuzaishuxixingmingdemanrongzhangtuzhonggaodiqiusuo。congzhongguogudaide《huangdineijing》he《bencaodagang》,daodongfangjindaibowuxuejiaduidongdongwufenlei,renleiduixingmingjingxiangdeshuxi,doushicongduixingmingtide“weiguan”chakan、“biaoguan”miaoxieerhuodedejinglixingluojizongjie。lingwaiyifangmian,duibifangniaosuzhileide“wujiwu”,huaxuejiamenyejuedezhinengyoushengwutizaiyizhongaomide“xingmingli”ganhuaxiafasheng。

  1828nian,deguohuaxuejiafulidelixi·weileyouyizaiwujichangshizhongfenjieleniaosu,jiekaileyeshengfenjiewujiwude“fenjiehuaxue”weisheng。yebianshicong19shijiqianqidao20shijiqianbanye,jiyushulihuashouyiyufangshidechangshimixincuishengleshuxixingmingpeiheshizhidexibaoshengwuxue、shengguitianxue、yichuanxuehefayushengwuxue,ertuihualundejiangsheng,zezuizaojiangrenleiduixingmingdeshuxi,jinshengdaoleshijidegaodu。

  20shijizhongye,genzhednashuangluoxuanbujudefaming,fenzishengwuxue“zhongjianfali”jianzhili,renleiqitouzhaodaoxingmingjingxiangde“anmaben”。erxingminglingwaiyileigenjifenzi,jubeixinlihuoxingdeluanbaizhiniuyidaosuyijibujudepouxi,jianjiezhishilewoguomixinjiayu60nianyuewanchengqiquanyeshengfenjie,jitianxiashangchuciyeshengfenjieluanbaizhi。zaitongyishiqi,dnacexushouyidechengli,wanchenglerenlei“dujiyin”dehuxiang;dnazhongzushouyidechengli,wanchenglerenlei“xiejiyin”dehuxiang;zaijiashangzaijiyindingxiangjianbianyuqiaochugenbenshangde“bianjiyin”huxiangdewancheng,fenzishengwuxuejijiyingongchengshouyizaishangshiji80nianyue,jiangxingmingmixintuixianglehanqingshangdiyicifandongdedianfeng。

  zhi20shijimo,renleijiyinzudasuandailailediercifandong,wanchenglejiyinzudezhouquan“jiedu”,renleiduishengwutigouchenghexingmingjilvdeshuxidaodaleshiwuqianlidetixishengwuxuedeshenduhedingliangshengwuxuedejingdu。2010nian,mixinjiafenjieyue100wanjianjidezhiyuantijiyinzu,bingjiangqizhuanrulingwaiyizhongzhiyuantixibaozhong,huodekeyibanchengzhanghegeliede“tianranxingming”,wanchengle“zhuanxie”jiyinzudehuxiang。erhou,mixinjiayoufenjielefeitianranhegansuan、feitianrananjisuan;bingjiena“bianji”jiyinzudeshouwan,chenglichutianrandanransetizhenhexibao……renleibawole“du”“xie”“bian”jiyinzudeshouyishouwan,huodeleshexiangyufenjiexingmingdecaineng,200nianqianliuxingyushide“xingmingli”xueshuobeiwanzhengjiangfu。

  甚么是分解生物学?

  youshenmeyangdeshuxi(mixin)heshouwan(shouyi)jiuyoushenmeyangdegongcheng。gudai,jingyoujincheng“changbaicao”chayandongwuyaoxing,chenglizhongyaotixi,jingyoujinchengyeshengxunhuayuyouxuan,huodezhongzhiziben,chenglichumuyeyunongyetixi,doushicaozongneishideshengwushuxiheshengwushouyi,zaofurenleidedianfangongchengshiji。mingtian,ruhecaozongduixingming“anmaben”deshuxijiduiqi“bianxie”deshouwan,gexintianran、zaofurenlei?21shijichu, mixinjiamenjianggongchengmixindeyantaolinianrongrugudaixingmingmixin,chengzhangchuyifenjieshengwuxueweidaibiaode“jiju”yantao,zengjinlexingmingmixindedisancifandong。

  fenjieshengwuxuejienagongchengxue“zixiaershang”delinian,tupo“tianran”he“feitianran”debianjie,congtixibiaozhengtianranjiejubeicuihuadiaokongdenggongxiaodeshengwudafenzi,shiqichengweibiaozhunhua“yuanjian”,daochengli“mokuai”“xianlu”dengquanzhongshengwubujianyuxibao“dipan”,goujianyougeleiyongchudetianranxingmingtixi。zheiyiyutixishengwuxue“zishangerxia”pouxilinianxiangfandefenjielinian,yejiangzanmenxijuedechangde“gewuzhizhi”yantaozhanlve,biancedaole“jianwuzhizhi”dexingaodu。ruxu,tuihuajinchengzhong“yuce”dexianrenwuzhonghuofenzitixi,jiangnenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxubeifenjie,bingjiayidingxiangdejieshi;erbeigelei“jiashuo”“duibi”pengfenyantaodepangzaxingmingjingxiang,yenenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuwanchengzhenghededingliangyantao,pouxiyinguojizhi。

  fenjieshengwuxuejienagongchengxue“shexiang—fenjie—ceshi”deyantaofangshi,zaijinxiulongtongtianranxingmingtixidegenbenshang,huoduitianranshengwutixi“zhongbiancheng”,huozhongtoushexiangjubeiquanxintediandeyeshengxingmingtixi;erhou,caozong“jiyinbianji”“jiyinfenjie”deng“dongxibao”,yongchangshifangshilaigoujian,zaiduigoujianchulaideshengwutixitingzhiceshi,rusipinpinlunhuiyouhua,gouchengleyigezhengxiangkaodezhudemixinbihuan。xiujianzairusidafanweitongyonghuagongchengpingtaigenbenshangdefenjieshengwuxue,changchangyebeichengwei“gongchengshengwuxue”,ta“jianwuzhiyong”degongchengcaineng,wuwangweichuliankang、dongli、shiliang、qingkuangdengyanzhongtimuzuochuxinjinxian。

  破解资本情况困难

  赋强人类安康奇迹

  yihou,zibenqianque、qingkuangjinghua、tianqibiangengdenghuanqiutimuriqutuxian,fenjieshengwushouyiweiwancheng“shehui—shengtai/qingkuang—jingji”xiediaochengzhanggongjilequanxinchulidasuan。

  meiyoushichuliangwuxiandebukezaishengziben,zaowanyouganhedeyitian,zheishirenleibaocunchengzhangbixuyanliyingdadetimu。zaishijishang,juedadadoumeiyouhuaxuepindounenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxujiezhufenjieshengwuxueshouyizhide,renmenhaikejingyoujinchengshengwufenjieshouyizhizuochuchuantonghuagongmeifafenjiedexinranliao。tongshi,fenjieshengwuxuezaiyeshenggutan、caozongeryanghuatanfangmianhuodetingdun。bifang,mixinjiajingyoujinchengduixijuntingzhiyeshengyouhuahegexin,zhizuokejiangdaqizhongdeeryanghuatanzhuanhuaweitong、chun、suandenghuaxuepinde“xibaogongchang”,wanchengeryanghuatandengzibendegaoxiaozonghecaozong,biancechenglidinenghao、dijinghua、dipaifangdeditanjingjixingshi。

  genzhehuanqiushengchibushizengtian,qingkuangjinghuajiazhonghetianqiyanxubiangeng,renleishiwuheqingkuangningjingmianduipangdatiaoxin。caozongfenjieshengwuxueshouyi,chengliheyongyushiwuchanyedexibaogongchang,jiangkezaishengzhiliaozhuanhuaweizhuyaoshiwuzufen,zheibeijuedeshichulishiwutimubiaokexingluzi。zainongyechuchanzhong,danfeicaozongliangdafuzengtiandailaidenitubanjiehesuanhuadengtimu,nenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxujingyoujinchengfenjieshengwuxue“weishengwugudan”shouyideyiyouyongchuli。zaiqingkuangbanlifanchou,nenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxujingyoujincheng“dingzhi”weishengwuquchunanjiangjiedewujijinghuawu,yekekaipichuyeshengfenjiedeweishengwuchuanganqi,zanzhurenleijianceqingkuang,shexianggoujiannenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxubianrenhefujinituhuoshuizhongdege、gong、shendengzhongjinshujinghuawudeweishengwu,yidafujinshengjinghuabanlixiaoli。

  fenjieshengwuxuezaixingmingankangfanchouyeyouguangmodeyongchu,buzhinenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuyongyutianranchanwudengyiyaochanwudechuchan,hainengzaijibingyantaomozidekaipi、shengwubiaojiwujiance、ganxibaoyuzaishengyixuedengfanchouchanyangpangdaganhua。bifang,rentichangdaoneijubeifengshuoduoyangdeweishengwu,fenjieshengwuxueweichangdaoweishengwudegexingongjiledongxi:yifangmian,nenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxushexianggexinduirentiwuyidexijun,rangtamenchuchanrentibenshenbunengfenjiedeweishengsudengyangfenwuzi;lingwaiyifangmian,nenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxushexiangchuganzhichangdaoqingkuangbiangengde“zhinengweishengwu”,duirentineideankangzhuangkuangtingzhijiancehezhenduan。

  zaikangjixinguanfeiyanyiqingzhong,fenjieshengwuxueshouyichanyanglezhuyaoganhua,jieshilezhuangdacaozongqianli。bifang,caozongdnatiaoxingmashouyigailiangcexuliucheng、caozongjiyinbianjishouyikaipihesuanzhenduanshiji,jinbuzhenduandejingquexinghehuoluodu。caozongfenjieshengwuxueshouyihainenggouhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuhuoxuxunmiqianfudexiaofenziyaowu、kaipiyimiao,hejingyoujinchengdiaolirentiweishengwuzulaijihuorentimianyitixi,jinburentikangbingducaineng。

  gexinxingmingdemubiao,shiweilegenghaodishuxihediaokongxingmingjingxiang,shizhiweigailiangshengtai、jinburenleixingminghukoupinzhibanshi。jianglai,zaiyeshengzhinenghedashujudengxinshouyibiancexia,fenjieshengwuxuejiangfuyurenleigengqiangde“gexintianran,caozongtianran”decaineng,guran,tongshiyehuidailaishehuilunliyuningjingdengxintimu。zanmenbixuzaisiweishangmingbaigaizuoshenme,ruhezuocaishijingquede;zaizuohaoweixianpingjiabingkaipifangkongweixiandeshouyihezhanlvedetongshi,shishinidingxiangyingdeyantaobiaozhun、lunlizhidianzhunshenghexiangyingdefaling、lvli,bingfuyikeluoshidebanliguizhangyujixifangshi。

  renleishubaiwannianduixingmingdemosuo,dianmobilailianggeduoshijidesancifandong,caidaodale“fenjieshengwuxue”degaodu,gouchenglegongchenghuadecaineng。danshi,zheizhishi“wanlizhangzhengdiyibu”。yonghaofenjieshengwuxuede“liqi”,weiwanchengfuzhishehuizhuyigudaihuaqiangguodebaofuzuochujinxian,haixuyaotourudapixuehan,jinshengchangshi、liyishouyi、jiezhuangzhuanhua、banshixuyao。zhongguomixinrenwuzheduiciyiburongci。

  (zuozheweizhongguomixinyuanyuanshi、zhongguomixinyuanfenjieshengwuxuezhongdianchangshishizhuanjiaweiyuanhuizhuren)

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