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泥河湾遗迹群——旧石器时期的自然博物馆

2020-11-14 公民日报
【字体:

yuyinbobao

tuweinihewanguangchangjinihewanyijiqunchabieyijichutudeshiqi。zhitu:caihuawei

  jinbainiandemixinmosuoshinihewanpendichengweitianxiashangjiushiqiyijizuimijidechusuozhiyi。nihewanpendibuzhifengshuolewoguojiushiqiwenmingxulie,yeweipingjiachuqirenleishouyiyurenzhicainenggongjileshouyaoziliao。yinihewanyijiqunweiyikao,hebeishengyangyuanxianjianchengletianxiazuidadejiushiqizhuantibowuguan,zhengzaifuzhinihewanguodukaoguyijigongyuan。

  泥河湾盆地激发天下存眷

  hennanshexiang,mianqianzheixieyimapingchuanyineibianbuzhe40yuchubaiwannianyishangdechuqirenleiyiji,erruxudeyijiquantianxiaweiyi50duochu。gengnanyishexiangdeshi,200wannianzhiqian,zheilishiyigemianjidaoda9000duopingfangqianmidedahu——huzhongyuxiachengqun,hubianyouguangmodeconglin,dapiburuzhiwuzaizheilifanzhishengxi,qianrenleiyezaizheilifanzhihukou。yuemozai1.8wannianqian,yinweizaoshangoudang,hudihuisheng,jiaochanuodong,hushuidajubuliuzou,dahuzhubujiantui,nihewandicengtanluchulai。

  sangganheyuanzishanxishuozhou,jingdatongdongliu,guohebeiyangyuan,caiquleyuxianliulaidehuliuhe,zuichuchuanguoshixiaxiaguhuiruyanghe,lianmian500qianmi。lidaoyuande《shuijingzhu》jishiguota,libaidelefugesongguota,songrenshenkuodetiaojilimiaoxieguota。9000pingfangqianmidesangganhehegu,meicundipandouxiemanlehanqing,hennanxiangchuyongxiaocunluonihewanlaidingmingzheiyiyijiqundelaiyou。danbainianqianqitoudemixinzuanyan,rangnihewanpendichiyutianxia。

  shangshiji20nianyue,likainihewancundefaguorenwensente,zaicunluozhoubianfamingledapibeiqiao、banglei、buruzhiguitianshi。tianjindebeijiangbowuyuanjianchenghou,taxiangyuanzhangsangzhihuabiaoxian,qingyuanjiangfamingdezhiguitianshizengsongbeijiangbowuyuan,bingyueqingsangzhihuakaochanihewan。sangzhihuazhidao1924nian9yue10ricaidongshenfunihewankaocha。

  jiuzaisangzhihuadongshendedangtian,meiguodizhixuejiabaerboshixianlechucimixinyisishangdenihewankaocha。tabanihewandedizhitesexiechengmanbiminjiebanfa,jiangnihewancunsizhoudehehuxiangjujidingmingweinihewanceng。1926nian,tahesangzhihualianxifaguogushengwuxuejiaderijinduinihewancengtingzhilefencengzuanyan,anzhaojizhuizhiguitianshi,kaiduankendingnihewancengyuouzhouweilafangqixiangcheng,shuyuzaogengxinshi。zuanyanbaogaozhong,lvcichengxian“nihewanpendi”,beishiweisangganhependideyijubu。congneishiqi,tianxiademuguangzaiweikuobienihewan。

  genzheshimingdeshenqie,nihewancengzaisangganhependineinenggouhuoxuhuoxuchixuzhuisuo,nihewanpendiguimozhubukuozhan。dicengxiangduinianyueshouyaoanzhaosuohanhuashipinzhonghetuihuashuipinglaipanding,leisidehuashizuhenianyueyesizhou。neishi,zuishoucunjuandegengxinshidicengdebiaojishirenleihuashi。

  1926nianqiu,sangzhihuadexizhoukoudianyijifamingleliangmeichuqirenleideyachi。anzhaozhiwuquntese,zhoukoudianrenleiyachihuashishiqiyunihewancengdingbuxiangcheng,sangzhihuadanyuanzainihewanfaminggengchenjiuderenleihuashi。tazainihewanshiminglelianggebanyue,juewangerfan。

  1929niandong,peiwenzhongzaizhoukoudianfaminglerenleitougaiguhuashi。zheishitianxiashangdiyimeidianmomixinwajuequdedechuqirenleiyihai。1930nian,《nihewanburuzhiwuqun》zaiguojixueshuqikanshangbanfa,kending“sangganhedegengxinshiyishuyurenleigengxinshi”。zuozhederijindengjinyandicaice,“zanmenhaibuxiaodeshibushiyourenzaicihukouguo,danzanmenxiaoderenleinenggouhuoxuhuoxucunzai。”duonianhou,sangzhihuakexidixiedao,“ruoshijieshangqujinianwonenggouhuoxuhuoxufanlai,wojianggengshenqiediwajuenihewanxindidian。”

  这里找到了有切当年月的初期前人类勾当遗迹

  1948nian,peiwenzhongzai《zhongguoshiqianzhizuanyan》yishuzhongtichu,“zhongguoyuanrenwenming,shifeiyuanshiwenming,jianglaihuokefaming,jiaozhongguoyuanrengengzaozhirenlei。”

  xinzhongguochenglihou,guojidedizhi、kaoguzhuanjiayangzhongjian、peiwenzhong、jialanpo、liudongshengyuanshidengdoulainihewantingzhiguoxueshuzuanyan,shinihewandemixindaijiariqushanxian。1954nian,nihewancengbeikendingweizhongguo、dongyashenzhitianxiadisijidicengduizhaodeguifanpoumian。jialanposuihouzhichu,beijingrenzaitizhiteseheshiqijianzaoshang,youhenduoqianjinxingzi,jubeicaozonghebanlihuodecaineng,yincibudaibiaozuichenjiuderenleihezuiyuanshidewenming。tamingbaitichu“nihewanqidicengcaishirenleizuizaodejiaotadi”,haolingzainihewancengxunmichuqirenleigoudangyiji。

  1965nian,hebeiyangyuanfaminglehutouliangyiji,querennihewanpendicunzaijiushiqichuqirenleigoudang。1972nian,zhongguomixinyuangujizhuizhiwuyuqianrenleizuanyansuodegaipeiheweiqizaishangshajudidianfamingnamagulingchixiangtougu。touguxiafangyouyijianyongshiyingyanlishizhichengdeshihe,yeshengchongjichenjiqingxi,chongjidianweiyulishijueqidexiaojibianyuan,penshexianchengshanxing。tamenquerenzheijianshichengpinshirenleichengxinshidazhidechanpin,shiqikuayue100wannian。nihewanfamingchuqishihelijijifaleguojiwaimixinjiedejidazhengshi。gujizhuizhiwuyuqianrenleizuanyanzhangchuchuyangzhongjianqinlvpeiwenzhong、jialanpo、sundianqing、anzhimindengshidikaocha。

  jubeihuashiqiyisidekaogufamingshizai1978nian,zhongguomixinyuangujizhuizhiwuyuqianrenleizuanyansuodeyouyuzhu、tangpiaoliangheliyi,zaisangganhenanwajueleyunihewancunxiangduiyingdexiaozhangliangyiji。804jianshichengpinchanzijubeixiuhuangsetiaodaideshacengli,dazhichenjijiaozhe,haichengxianlecaozongchenji,tongshichutudezhiguitianshibaohanliegou、gulingchixiang、sanzhimahesanmenma,kaiduanpandingshuyuzaogengxinshinihewanceng。suiranzhiguitianshiyikendinglenihewancengdeshiqiguimo,danyijiqiedangnianyueyixiangdao21shijichucaiqudequeren。

  20shijichu,mixinjiamenyizhuzhongdaoyouxieyanshijishidecichangbiaodemudehedidiandedicichangbiaodemudexiangfan,chengliqile500duowannianlaidiqiucichangdaozhuanchanshengdeshihouxulie。duipinfaxiangduicenianziliaodejujiwu,caozongnangxicichangbiaodemudelaikendingnianyueshiweiyidetiaoxuan。xiaozhangliangyijishiqicengxiafangbudao6mibianshichenjiujiyan,zheiduandicengzhongbuchengxiandicichangdaozhuan,nanyijinyibukendingnianyue。zhongguomixinyuandizhiyudiqiuwulizuanyansuozhurixiangdailingtuanduixiangxizhuisuo,zaixice1qianmizhaodaonenggouhuoxuhuoxuhexiaozhangliangyijiwanshanduizhaodedonggoupoumian。tamenzaizheilishouluodaodapideyangpin,zaigushengguitianshidebangzhuxia,bapoumiandecijixingxulieyuguifandicijixingshihoubiaochiduizhao,zhongjiuqudeleshiqicengweisizhoudicichangdaozhuandeshihou,querenxiaozhangliangyijishiqicengdenianyueweijujin136wannian。

  xiaozhangliangshinihewanyeshizhongguodiyigebeipubianchengrende、youqiedangnianyuedechuqiqianrenleigoudangyiji,shixinanyabeibuquezhidezuizaoderenleiyiji,weishuxichuqirenleifensangongjileshouyaoxiansuo。2001nian9yue,zheiyigongxiaozaiyingguo《ziran》zazhibanfa,beiguojiwaitongyeminjiejieguan,yebeidiaokezaixinwangongdezhonghuashijitanqingtongyongdaoshang。

  jiuzaixiaozhangliangyijinianyuezhengshizhuxiaodetongshi,weiqihexiefeidengrenzhengzainihewanwajuemaquangouyijidisanwenmingceng。zheiyiwenmingcengweiyuxiaozhangliangyijizhixia,gudicixuezuanyanjielu,nianyueweijujin166wannian。

  nihewancengzhongcunzaiduogechuqijiushiqiwenmingcengqudepinpinqueren。nihewanbushidanyideyiji,ershiyoushushichujiushiqishiqiyijizuchengdeyijiqun,hangailejiushiqishiqizao、zhong、chuqi,jishilechuqixifangrenleiwenmingyushouyiyanhuadehaofanguanjian,keweijiushiqishiqideziranbowuguan。

  迷信塑造着泥河湾盆地的将来

  zuixinzuanyanfaming,shiqianrenleidazhishiqishinenggouhuoxuhuoxufanzhuantaimian,congerchongshicaozongxiaokuaisuishi。zaishiqisizhoudedonggutuoyiji,shiqianrenleigengduodidiaojihebuzhuitaimianlaiqudeshipianmaopi,biaoxianleduixiaoxingshipianbopianjiaoqiangdejiezhicaineng,heshiqichuchanzhongbiranshuipingdeyusheyudasuan。zheiyujiaozaodexiaozhangliangyijijianlveshiheshipianbini,shiqidazhishouyiqianjinjiaozhe。

  tuixiuhou,weiqizaidonggutuoyijisizhoudetianshexiaoyuanligongfeichenglile“nihewanyuanrenchakanzhan”。duonianlai, yuanrenchakanzhanbuzhishinihewanmixinkaochajidi,gengshixinxiandejiushiqimixinshizhanlanshi。zaixiaoyuanlizhangdadenvhaierjiazhenxiujianguanlelaijiaochangchangdekaoguxuejia。zaiwajuexianchangpaodadetahenzaojiubajiushiqikaoguxuejiazuoweizhiyebaofu。cike,tayiruyuanqitoulejiushiqikaoguzuanyanhukoushengji。

  zainihewanbowuguan,weiqidedengshenhaibaojiulizaifeiliangyijidezhanbanqian。zhanbanzhong,7suidejiazhenxiuchuandaiyitiaofensequnzidunzaizheyangsanxia,wodongshouchan,beiduizheguanzhong,quanshenguanshudiwajue。liangdaikaoqianrendeshenyingjiuruxujiaochazaiyilu。

  zainihewan,meiyinianzhaojiuyoukaogushimingzhezaitingzhizidongxingwajue。meiyiniandehanhanjia,zheilishihaizimenjinxiurenleichuqihanqingdedajiangtang。

  mixinbuzhitengxielerenleidehanqing,yesuzaolependidejianglai。

  (tangzihua,zuozhedanyuan:zhongguomixinyuandizhiyudiqiuwulizuanyansuo)

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